It’s infertility awareness week and there is no better time to promote education about reproductive health so we have gathered some important facts and and statistics about infertility.
Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after trying to conceive for 12 months, in women under 35 years old or 6 months, in women over 35.
The prevalence of infertility has increased. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, birth rates continue to decline and hit 30-years low. According to Statistics Canada, Canada’s total birth rate has been falling since 2009, from 1.68 children per woman to 1.54 in 2016, the lowest level recorded since 2003.
The average age of mothers at first birth is 29.2 years and continue to rise steadily since the mid-1960s.
Fertility in both men and women decline with age however the decline is steeper in women:
30-year-old women have 20% chance to get pregnant each month
40-year- old women have 5% chance to get pregnant each month
In Canada, 1 in 6 couples are affected by infertility.
⅓ of infertility cases can be attributed to male factors
⅓ of infertility cases can be attributed to female factors
⅓ of infertility cases are a combination of both male and female factors
|Male infertility causes||Female infertility causes|
|Abnormal sperm production or function Due to a health condition or disease||Ovulation disorders – These include hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hyperprolactinemia, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.|
|Problems with the delivery of sperm||Uterine or cervical abnormalities – including abnormalities in the opening of the cervix, polyps in the uterus or shape of the uterus.|
|Overexposure to certain environmental factors such as pesticides and other chemicals or radiation||Fallopian tube damage or blockage –often caused by inflammation of the fallopian tube (salpingitis)|
|Damage related to cancer and its treatment||Endometriosis – when the endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus|
|Primary ovarian insufficiency (early menopause, before 40)|
|Pelvic adhesions – a scar tissue that binds organs after infection or surgery.|
|Damage related to cancer and its treatment|
GIFT and ZIFT are not common procedures and account for only 2% of ART procedures.
1. Hormone Therapy (OI)
2. Egg Retrieval and Sperm collection Insemination
3. Egg and sperm preparation
4. Egg and sperm are mixed to promote fertilization
5. Embryo is grown in the lab for 3-5 days
6. Embryo transfer
7. After two weeks pregnancy is confirmed in blood and ultrasound test